The Czech Republic and Its Regions

The Czech Republic is located in Central Europe. On 1 January 1993, the then Czech and Slovak Federative Republic had separated, and the independent Czech Republic and the independent Slovak Republic emerged. According to the Constitution, the modern Czech state follows the tradition of the statehood of Czechoslovakia and the former lands of the Czech Crown. The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy, a state governed by the rule of law, which is based on the free competition of political parties. The state is headed by the President of the Republic, and the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic is its legislative body.

The Czech Republic was admitted to NATO on 12 March 1999 and joined the European Union on 1 May 2004; the Czech Republic became part of the Schengen Area on 21 December 2007. The Czech Republic is also a member of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). The Republic borders four states. Germany in the west, Poland in the north-east, Slovakia in the south-east, and the southern border is shared with Austria. The total area of the Czech Republic is 78,866 km².

As of 1 January 2016, there were 6,258 municipalities in the Czech Republic with an average size of 1,687 inhabitants. What is more important, however, is the fact that municipalities up to 1,000 inhabitants accounted for 77% of all municipalities in the Czech Republic as at the same date. Almost 43% of the population live in municipalities over 20 thousand of inhabitants (61 cities). On the other hand, 7% of the population live in municipalities with up to 500 inhabitants (3440 municipalities). Registry offices exist in 1275 municipalities, and building offices function in 677 municipalities.

Area in km² Number of inhabitants Regional capital Population density (inhab./km²) Number of municipalities of which: with the status of the city
Czech Republic 78,869.7 10,553,843 ---- 134 6,258 602
Prague Region 496.1 1,267,449 Praha 2,555 1 1
Středočeský Region 11,016.1 1,326,876 120 1,144 83
Jihočeský Region 10,058.0 637,834 České Budějovice 63 624 54
Plzeňský Region 7,561 576,616 Plzeň 76 501 57
Karlovarský Region 3,314.3 297,828 Karlovy Vary 90 134 38
Ústecký Region 5,334.6 822,826 Ústí nad Labem 154 354 59
Liberecký Region 3,163.4 439,639 Liberec 139 215 39
Královéhradecký Region 4,759.0 551,421 Hradec Králové 116 448 48
Pardubický Region 4,518.9 516,149 Pardubice 114 451 38
Vysočina Region 6,795.6 509,475 Jihlava 75 704 34
Jihomoravský Region 7,195.1 1,175,025 Brno 163 673 49
Olomoucký Region 5,266.9 634,718 Olomouc 121 402 30
Zlínský Region 3,963.0 584,676 Zlín 148 307 30
Moravskoslezský Region 5,427.6 1,213,311 Ostrava 224 300 42

Source of data: CSO

Regions and Municipalities

According to its constitution, the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities which are basic territorial self-governing units, and regions which are higher territorial self-governing units. Territorial self-governing units are territorial communities of citizens, which are entitled to have self-government.

Both municipalities and regions are public-law corporations, independently managing their affair, under the so-called independent jurisdiction, to which the state and its authorities may interfere only to protect the law and only in the manner prescribed by law.

Municipalities and regions have their own property and income defined by law; they manage their operations under the conditions stipulated by the law according to their own budgets, taking care of the universal development of their territories and of the needs of their citizens, acting in legal relations on their own behalf and being accountable for these relations.

The state administration entrusted by law to the authorities of municipalities and regions is carried out by municipal or regional authorities as so-called delegated powers. When exercising the state administration, the municipality or region is an administrative district.

The administrative structure consisting of regional, local and municipal national committees was abolished in 1990. Gradually, the regional and municipal structures were established with municipalities, towns and regions, which carry out both autonomous powers and powers delegated to them by the state within the so-called mixed public administration model.

The region is the highest state administration body in the territory (i.e. with powers delegated from the state level); regions’ territories are further divided into administrative districts of municipalities with extended powers (ORP), which are called degree III municipalities. The administrative districts of municipalities with extended powers are further divided into territorial districts of municipalities with designated municipal authorities (the so-called degree or type II municipalities), which carry out certain state administration specific powers for the municipalities in their relevant areas. The exercise of state administration in municipalities of the basic degree (or of the basic type) is also differentiated according to certain agendas - some of them are headquarters of registries, trade offices or building offices, some of them issue certified outputs from public administration information systems or certify or authenticate documents.

The former administrative territories of so-called districts (okresy) have been preserved only in selected administrative areas (e.g. in the judiciary) and for statistical purposes.

The NUTS 1 statistical unit includes the entire territory of the Czech Republic. The NUTS 2 statistical units are comprised of one to three regions so that they have a comparable population and can distribute support under EU Cohesion Policy through the so-called Regional Councils of the Cohesion Regions. The Plzeňský and Jihočeský Regions are thus associated to the NUTS Jihozápad, the Karlovarský and Ústecký Regions to the NUTS Severozápad, the Liberecký, Královéhradecký and Pardubický Regions to the NUTS Severovýchod, the Vysočina and Jihomoravský Regions to the NUTS Jihovýchod, the Olomoucký and Zlínský Regions to the NUTS Střední Morava. The areas of the NUTS Praha, NUTS Střední Čechy and NUTS Moravskoslezsko are each made up of a single region.

The regions are NUTS 3 statistical units; NUTS Praha, NUTS Střední Čechy and NUTS Moravskoslezsko are also at NUTS 2 level. So-called Euroregions are set up to strengthen, in particular, cross-border cooperation within the EU.

Financing of Municipalities and Regions

The table shows revenue and expenditure of municipalities, voluntary associations of municipalities (DSOs) and regions (as at 31 December 2016, in CZK million).

  Total Municipalities and DSOs Ratio of municipalities
and DSOs (in %)
Regions
Revenue
Tax revenue 249,498 190,751 76 58,747
Non-tax revenue 35,548 31,363 88 4,185
Capital gains 8,526 7,878 92 649
Received transfers 156,768 52,039 33 104,729
Total revenue after rectification 450,340 282,031 63 168,310
Expenditure
Current expenditure 330,097 188,983 57 141,114
Capital expenditure 66,996 52,518 78 14,478
Total expenditure 397,093 241,501 61 155,592

Revenue and income net position 53,248 40,530 76 12,718
Financing - 53,248 - 40,530 76 - 12,718
Bank accounts balances 150,555 126,706 84 23,849

Source: Ministry of Finance, February 2017

Regions and Legislation

In terms of the division of the state administration in the Czech Republic, Act No. 2/1969 Coll., on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Central Bodies of the Czech Republic State Administration, as amended, is important. The aforementioned, so-called Competence Act regulates the scope of powers for the central administration bodies - the ministries - and, in addition to them, the Competence Act provides for 15 more central administration bodies.
Laws regulating the competence of higher and basic territorial self-governing units, i.e. regions, municipalities and towns, as well as of the City of Prague, are important for the territorial exercise of state administration.

Act No. 129/2000 Coll. on Regions (Establishment of Regions), as amended
The Region as a territorial unit, which is defined by the boundary of the Region territory, is a territorial community of citizens, independently managed by the Regional Council; other regional bodies include the Regional Committee, the Regional Governor and the Regional Office.

Act No. 128/2000 Coll. on Municipalities (Establishment of Municipalities), as amended
The Municipality as a territorial unit, which is defined by the boundary of the municipal territory, is a territorial community of citizens, independently managed by the Municipal Council; other bodies include the Municipal Committee, the Mayor and the Municipal Office.
Any municipality, which has at least 3,000 inhabitants, is a town, provided that the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies declares so at the proposal of the municipality and upon the opinion given by the Government. The same applies to any municipality that had been a town before 17 May 1954, if the municipality asks the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies. The town is independently managed by the Town Council; other town authorities include the Town Committee, the Mayor, the Town Office, and special town authorities.
A municipality is a township, provided that the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies declares so at the proposal of the municipality and upon the opinion given by the Government. The township is independently managed by the Township Council; other township authorities include the Township Committee, the Mayor, the Township Office, and special township authorities.
The towns of Kladno, České Budějovice, Plzeň, Karlovy Vary, Ústí nad Labem, Liberec, Jablonec nad Nisou, Hradec Králové, Pardubice, Jihlava, Brno, Zlín, Olomouc, Přerov, Chomutov, Děčín, Frýdek-Místek, Ostrava, Opava, Havířov, Most, Teplice, Karviná, Mladá Boleslav and Prostějov are statutory towns (towns with their own charters). The territories of statutory towns can be divided into urban districts or quarters with their own local administration authorities.
The statutory town is independently managed by the Town Council; other statutory town authorities include the Town Committee, the Mayor, the City Hall, and special town authorities. The district of a structured statutory town is managed by the District Council; other District authorities include the District Committee, the Mayor, the District Office, and special district authorities. The quarter of a structured statutory town is managed by the Quarter Council; other Quarter authorities include the Quarter Committee, the Mayor, the Quarter Office, and special quarter authorities.
The Commission is also an authority of the municipality, township, town, statutory town, district or quarter, if it has been entrusted with the exercise of delegated powers.

Act No. 131/2000 Coll. on the City of Prague, as amended
The City of Prague has a specific position in the Czech administrative structure. It has a status of the capital of the Czech Republic and also of the region, municipality or districts.
The City of Prague is independently managed by the City Council.; Other authorities of the city include the City Committee, the Mayor of the City, the City Hall, and special authorities.

Act No. 248/2000 Coll. on Support to Regional Development, as amended
This regulation is a special law regulating the conditions especially for the provision of support to regional development (and the related powers of the central administrative authorities, regions and municipalities) and for the coordination and implementation of the support of economic, social and territorial cohesion.
The parts of the regulation dealing with the provision of regional development support contain provisions governing

  • the ways how regional development is to be supported,
  • the subject and content of the Czech Republic's regional development strategy, the process of its elaboration and approval, the preparation of the report on its implementation and updating,
  • the subject and content of the region territory development strategy, the process of its approval, the preparation of the report on its implementation and updating,
  • the competence of the Ministry for Regional Development, central administrative authorities, regions and municipalities, and of the Centre for Regional Development of the Czech Republic in support of regional development, in particular, in relation to the elaboration and implementation of strategic development documents.

The objective of regional development support is to ensure a dynamic and balanced development of the Czech Republic's territory with regard to the quality of life and the environment, to contribute to the reduction of regional differences and, at the same time, to enable the use of local potential for raising the economic and social level of individual regions.
The areas of regional development support at the level of the Czech Republic will be further defined by the Regional Development Strategy of the Czech Republic, a document approved by the Government of the Czech Republic, and at regional level, by the region territory development strategy approved by the Regional Council. These conceptual materials have been prepared and are valid for the European Union programming period; they define the focus and objectives of regional development, especially with regard to the dynamic and balanced development of the state and its individual regions, and lay down basic conditions for the fulfilment of these objectives.
The Ministry for Regional Development, in cooperation with the other central administrative authorities and regions concerned, proposes the definition of the regions development of which should be promoted in view of the dynamic and balanced development of the Czech Republic, increasing the economic and social level of territorial self-governing units and maintaining their economic, social and territorial cohesion (hereinafter referred to as "state-supported regions").

The Ministry for Regional Development monitors and evaluates the activities of administrative authorities, regions and municipalities in support provided to regional development and recommends measures for the implementation of priorities and objectives contained in the Regional Development Strategy in relation to their powers, and also coordinates at the national level international cooperation in support provided to regional development and territorial cooperation.

The Region analyses and evaluates the level of development of its territory, approves and implements a development strategy for its territory and monitors and evaluates its fulfilment.

The Municipality cooperates with the Region within the territory of which it is located, in the preparation and implementation of the region territory development strategy, in accordance with local conditions and development documents. In addition, the municipality independently or in cooperation with other municipalities provides for or supports activities aimed at the development of the municipal territory. The municipal authority of the municipality with extended powers in the delegated competence cooperates with the region on the preparation and evaluation of the implementation of the region territory development strategy, and with the Ministry on the preparation and evaluation of the implementation of the Regional Development Strategy.
In the part of the regulation on the coordination and implementation of the support of economic, social and territorial cohesion, the following provisions are relevant for the current EU programming period (2014-2020):

  • Creating and implementing a unified national framework (under the coordination of the Ministry for Regional Development) to unify the procedures for the preparation, management, monitoring and evaluation of EU funded programs,
  • The conditions for issuance of management acts binding on the managing authorities for the methodological unification of the procedures for the preparation, management, monitoring and evaluation of EU funds programs,
  • Definition of the purpose, functions and applications of the monitoring system,
  • Defining the purpose and the content of the activity of the Government Advisory Body in this field (the so-called Council for European Structural and Investment Funds),
  • The framework powers to provide subsidies of the managing authorities and entities delegated by them,
  • Modifying the scope of powers of selected cities (Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň, Ústí nad Labem, Pardubice, Olomouc and Prague), processing and implementing sustainable urban strategies through the application of integrated territorial investments (ITI).

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The Ministry for Regional Development - Basic Activities

  • National Coordination of EU Funds - Cooperation with EU Institutions - EU Territorial Agenda
  • Public investments - Public auctions and real estate activities
  • Regional policy - Tourism - Housing policy
  • Land planning and building regulations

The Regional Policy Department exercises, in particular, the competence of the Ministry as the central administration body in regional policy matters, primarily on the basis of Act No. 248/2000 Coll., on Support for Regional Development, the execution of state administration in providing state aid to restore the territories affected by natural and other disasters in accordance with Act No. 12/2002 Coll., on State Aid for the Rehabilitation of the Territory, and provides for research and development tasks in areas related to the Ministry's competencies. The Department also manages the Agenda Catalogue in the Registry of Rights and Obligations within its scope of competence pursuant to Act No. 111/2009 Coll., on Basic Registries, as amended.

The structure of the Regional Policy Department is as follows:
  • Regional Agendas section,
  • Regional Development Strategy Management section,
  • Urban Policy section,
  • Regional Programmes Administration section,
  • Rural support section.

The Regional Development Strategy of the Czech Republic (2014 - 2020) - Government Resolution No. 344/2013 Coll.

The Regional Development Strategy of the Czech Republic is an essential tool of the regional policy and coordination of other public policies in order to maximize their contribution to regional development. It ensures the coherence between the national regional policy and the regional policy of the European Union as well as other sectoral policies influencing territorial development; the Regional Development Strategy is a basis for regional-oriented development programs financed exclusively from national sources or co-financed by the European Union resources.

Focusing on the regional policy functions
  • Support for development areas (growth poles)
  • Support for lagging regions
  • Prevention of future risks

Action Plan: The Strategy of the Czech Republic’s Regional Policy

The Action Plan for the implementation of the SRP ("Action Plan” hereinafter) is a short-term implementation plan aimed at elaborating and detailing activities of the Czech Republic's Regional Development Strategy proper, which also reflects current needs in the area of regional development of the Czech Republic.
The Action Plan is implemented with both financial and non-financial instruments. European Structural and Investment Funds are the most important financial instrument for the implementation of the Action Plan. The thematic focus of national grant programs is wider; it also covers areas that cannot be funded from European sources (e.g. tourism support). Action plans are prepared for a two-year period.


Territorial Dimension

The territorial dimension is a regional policy approach aimed at concentrating the funds of both European and national resources in specific types of territories. The territorial dimension thus ensures the most efficient use of available financial resources. Supported are both activities strengthening competitiveness (depending on the development potential) of the Czech Republic and activities contributing to the levelling of territorial disparities (related to the internal differentiation of the territory and the concentration of issues of the economic, social or environmental character).
The territorial dimension will be implemented at the level of ESI Funds in two ways; either by individual projects through calls targeted to specific types of territory, or by integrated projects within the implementation of integrated instruments.
The Partnership Agreement includes an analysis of disparities, development needs and growth potential for problematic areas. It is linked to operational programmes and RDPs, identifying regional problems, development needs and priorities, which then form the focus of the support under the ESI funds for the period 2014-2020 in the Czech Republic. "National development priorities (NDPs) for the 2014-2020 period, which the Czech Republic had set as the basis of the entire 2014-2020 programming process, were used as the basis for analysis and identification of needs.”
Based on the Partnership and Programmes Agreement, the following problematic areas were analysed. The problems that have a territorial dimension are addressed within the different types of territorial dimension.

  • Traffic infrastructure and accessibility/mobility
  • ICT infrastructure
  • Energy infrastructure
  • Functioning labour market
  • Social inclusion, the fight against poverty and the health care system
  • Public administration
  • Protection of the environment
  • Climate change
  • Modern and high quality education system
  • Efficient research and innovation system
  • Competitive businesses

National Document on the Territorial Dimension

The National Document on the Territorial Dimension (NDUD) follows up the issues identified in the Partnership Agreement and identifies specific territorial projections of the relevant ESI Funds programmes at the level of specific objectives and measures. For each specific objective or measure, the NDUD specifies the type of identified territorial dimension, the activities covered by the territorial dimension, the scope of territorial targeting, the criteria for defining the territory, the background for the definition and other conditions to be met (e.g. compliance with the strategy).
The conducted analyses were used to identify the types of territories or functional units in which it is effective to solve the problem with the support of greater intensity or to focus the support from the ESI funds in order to solve the problem more efficiently or to strengthen its potential.
Methodological guideline IN (MPIN) - regulates the use of integrated instruments.

Types of territories or functional units

Territorial Dimension Type of territory
To address social inclusion Socially excluded localities
To solve problems on the labour market and business Economically problematic regions and territories with high unemployment rates
In the social and educational spheres Purposeful functional regions addressing the subject in the social and educational sphere
Focus on transport accessibility Transport lines and corridors
Focus on the environment Specific areas within the environment
Focus on urban development and urban background Development and urban areas
For rural development Territory covered by the LAG
Other delimitation of the territorial dimension Other specific territories

Allocation for the Territorial Dimension

  Allocation (CZK billion) Territorial dimension allocation in the total allocation (%)
Projects under targeted calls 105,0 17,3
ITI 38,2 6,4
IPRU 10,5 1,7
CLLD 15,8 2,6
Total min 180,5 27,6

Integrated Instruments

The integrated approach using ESI funds is implemented in the Czech Republic through three integrated instruments - Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI), Integrated Territorial Development Plans (IPRU) and Community-led Local Development (CLLD).
The relevant integrated instrument can be used based on a prepared and approved integrated strategy, which must primarily be based on specific objectives/measures of the ESI Funds programmes identified for the given type of integrated instrument by the National Document to the Territorial Dimension.
The integrated strategy must be derived from, and contribute to, the binding benchmarks of the relevant ESI Funds programmes. It should also respect the description of the problem areas in the Partnership Agreement and the intervention strategy of the programmes under which it will be funded. Further, it should be based on the specifics and potential of the area being solved.
The allocations of funds to the territorial dimension, which is implemented by the above-mentioned integrated instruments, allocated in the individual operational programmes and the Rural Development Program, are given in the National Document on Territorial Dimension. The preparation and implementation of integrated instruments are regulated by the Methodical Guideline on the use of integrated instruments in the 2014-2020 programming period.

  • Integrated Territorial Investments - ITI

ITI are an instrument for the implementation of the territorial dimension in metropolitan areas / agglomerations of national significance. It is a new instrument for the application of an integrated approach using the European Structural and Investment Funds, which is implemented on the basis of a prepared and approved integrated strategy.
ITI are designed for metropolitan areas / settlement agglomerations with concentrations of more than 300,000 inhabitants, namely for the metropolitan areas of Praha, Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň and for the settlement agglomerations of Ústí - Chomutov, Olomouc and Hradec Králové - Pardubice in accordance with the Regional Development Strategy of the Czech Republic 2014-2020.
Objective: Strengthening the competitiveness of heavily urbanized areas

  • Integrated Territorial Development Plans - IPRU

IPRU represent an instrument for the sustainable development of regional growth poles with a natural catchment area located outside metropolitan areas and nationally significant settlement agglomerations using the ITI instrument. IPRU will be implemented in České Budějovice, Jihlava, Karlovy Vary, Mladá Boleslav, Zlín and Liberec - Jablonec nad Nisou for the territory comprising the core city and its functional background.
Objective: Socio-economic stabilization of the entire catchment area (reduced competitiveness within the Czech Republic)

  • Community-led local development - CLLD

CLLD is run by Local Action Groups (LAGs hereinafter) and implemented on the basis of integrated and multi-sectoral local development strategies. Development is designed with regard to local needs. This approach in the LAG area formed by administrative territories of municipalities with less than 25,000 inhabitants, where the maximum LAG does not exceed 100,000 inhabitants and is not less than 10,000 inhabitants.
Objective: Support the development of rural space


Research for the Regions under the Authority of the Ministry for Regional Development

Research priorities for the MRD:

  • Research and development in the fields of regional policy, tourism, land-use planning, housing policies;
  • Research and development that will lead to more effective links to European legislation within the National Coordination Authorities.

In the field of research, the work of the Ministry focuses on the definition of research needs, the certification of research methodologies, the application of research results in the regions and, at the same time, the promotion of invention in regions and municipalities.
The Regional Policy Department of the Ministry is the research coordinator. In cooperation with the Technology Agency, the Czech Republic provides for certification of research, development and innovation methodologies under BETA 2 (2017+) and OMEGA - ETA (2020) programmes.
The Manual for the Preparation of Certified Research, Development and Innovation Methodology, as well as the Model Application Agreement, the approved Review Form, or Contacts to officials-in-charge can be found at the official MRD website.

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Documents to the regional development

Documents to the regional development - national
(downloadable documents are in English language)

Partnership Agreement
Anex to chapter 2.3

Územní dimenze
Spatial Development Policy of the Czech republic 2008
Spatial Development Policy of the Czech Republic Updated version 1

Strategic Framework for SD 2010


Important laws

Act No. 248/2000 Coll. on Support to Regional Development
Act No. 128/2000 Coll. on Municipalities (Establishment of Municipalities)
129/2000 Coll., on Regions (Establishment of Regions)
131/2000 Coll., on the City of Prague (document is in Czech language only)
183/2006 Coll., on Land Planning and Building Regulations (Building Act)


Regional Development in Regions
(only in Czech)
Prague Region: regional development
planning tools in capital city Prague
Středočeský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Jihočeský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Plzeňský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Karlovarský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Ústecký Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Liberecký Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Královéhradecký Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Pardubický Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Vysočina Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Jihomoravský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Olomoucký Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Zlínský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers
Moravskoslezský Region: regional development
planning tools in municipalities with extended powers

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Maps

(downloadable in A4 format, in Czech language only)

Administrative division of the Czech Republic
  • Administrative division of the Czech Republic
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Settlements in the Czech Republic as at 01/01/2017
  • Settlements in the Czech Republic as at 01/01/2017
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Districts in the Czech Republic
  • Districts in the Czech Republic
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Territories with legislative protection of nature - Specially protected areas
  • Territories with legislative protection of nature - Specially protected areas;
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Territories with legislative protection of nature - NATURA 2000
  • Territories with legislative protection of nature - NATURA 2000
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Catchment areas of the Czech Republic
  • Catchment areas of the Czech Republic
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download
Integrated instruments in the Czech Republic
  • Integrated instruments in the Czech Republic
  • Original size: A4
  • Downloadable file   Download

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Odkazy
Kontakt
Ministerstvo pro místní rozvoj ČR
Staroměstské náměstí 6
110 15 Praha 1
tel: +420 234 15 4065
e-mail: risy@mmr.cz